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The Splitting up of this Ummah


Introductory Materials
The Splitting and Differing in the Ummah is Due to the
Innovations and Innovators
Author: Imaam ash-Shatibee
Source: Al-I’tisaam
Article ID : GSC010003
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Imaam ash-Shaatibee (rahimahullaah) said in al-I’tisaam (1/40-45):

…And Ibn Wahb said: “I heard Maalik saying: `There is no verse in
the Book of Allaah that is harder upon those in disagreement amongst
the People of Desires than this verse:

On the Day (i.e. the Day of Resurrection) when some faces will
become white and some faces will become black; as for those whose
faces will become black (to them will be said): “Did you reject
Faith after accepting it? Then taste the torment (in Hell) for
rejecting Faith.” [Aali Imraan 3:106]

Maalik said: “And which words are more clearer than these?’ And I
saw him explaining these verses in reference to the People of
Desires.”

Ibn al-Qaasim reported this and added: “Maalik said to me: `This
verse is about the people of the qiblah [i.e. Muslims].” And what
Imaam Maalik has said about this verse has been narrated from more
than one person as has preceded such as al-Hasan.

From Qataadah, that he said regarding the saying of Allaah:

And be not as those who divided and differed among themselves after
the clear proofs had come to them [Aali Imraan 3:105]

“Meaning: The People of Innovation.”

And from Ibn `Abbaas, that he said regarding the saying of Allaah:

On the Day (i.e. the Day of Resurrection) when some faces will
become white and some faces will become black [Aali Imraan 3:106]

“The faces of Ahl us-Sunnah will become white and the faces of Ahl
ul-Bid’ah will become black.”

And also amongst the verses [that are related to the censure of
innovation] is His saying:

“And verily, this is my Straight Path, so follow it, and follow not
(other) paths, for they will separate you away from His Path. This
He has ordained for you that you may become Al-Muttaqûn” [Al-An’aam
6:153]

The `Siraat ul-Mustaqeem’ (Straight Path) is the path to which
Allaah has called and that is the Sunnah. And `Subul (other paths)
are the paths of the people of disagreement who turn away from the
Straight Path, and they are the People of Innovation. And the intent
here is not the `paths of disobedience’ because no one makes
disobedience a path that he continuously treads upon – in imitation
of and resemblance to the legislation, but rather this description
is specifically for the invented innovations.

And what Ismaa’eel has narrated from Sulaimaan bin Harb gives
evidence to this: “Hammaad bin Zaid narrated to us from `Aasim bin
Bahdalah from Abu Waa’il from Abdullaah [Ibn `Abbaas] who said: `One
Day the Messenger (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) drew for us a long,
straight line’ and then Sulaimaan drew for us a long, straight
line, `and then he drew lines to its right and to its left and then
said: This is the Path of Allaah. Then he drew lines to its right
and to its left and said: These are different paths, upon each of
these ways is a devil calling to it’, and then he recited the verse:

“And verily, this is my Straight Path, so follow it, and follow not
(other) paths…” [Al-An’aam 6:153]

meaning these paths

“…for they will separate you away from His Path” Al-An’aam 6:153]”

Bikr bin `Alaa said: “He meant the devils amongst men and these are
the innovations and Allaah knows best.

And the hadeeth has been reported in many ways.

And `Umar bin Salamah al-Hamdaanee said: “We were sitting in the
circle of Ibn Mas’ood in the mosque, which had been plain land after
it had been covered with gravel. `Ubaidullaah bin Umar ibn al-
Khattaab, who had just returned from an expedition, said to
him: `What is the straight path O Abu `Abdur-Rahmaan?’ He
replied: `By the Lord of the Ka’bah, it is that which your father
was firmly established upon until he entered Paradise’ and then he
swore firmly upon that three times, Then he drew a line in the
ground with his hand and also drew lines to either side of it and
said: `Your Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) left you upon this
end and its other end is in Paradise. So whoever remains steadily
upon it will enter Paradise and whoever takes any of these lines
will be destroyed.”

And in another narration: “O Abu `Abdur-Rahmaan, what is the
straight path?” He said: “The Messenger (sallallaahu `alaihi
wasallam) left us upon the nearest end of the line and its other end
is in Paradise. And to its left and right are roads in which there
are men who invite those who pass by them, saying: `Come this way!
Come this way!” So whoever is taken by them to those paths will end
up in Hellfire and whoever remains steadfast upon the great path
will end up, through it, in Paradise.” The Ibn Mas’ood recited:

“And verily, this is my Straight Path, so follow it, and follow not
(other) paths, for they will separate you away from His Path. This
He has ordained for you that you may become Al-Muttaqûn” [Al-An’aam
6:153]

And Mujaahid said about the saying of Allaah:

…and follow not (other) paths [Al-An’aam 6:153]

“The innovations and doubts.”

And Abdur-Rahmaan bin Mahdee said: “Maalik bin Anas had been asked
about the Sunnah and he said: `It is whatever has no other name for
it except `the Sunnah’ and he recited:

“And verily, this is my Straight Path, so follow it, and follow not
(other) paths, for they will separate you away from His Path. [Al-
An’aam 6:153]

Bikr bin `Alaa said: “He means – if Allaah wills – the hadeeth of
Ibn Mas’ood that the Messenger (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) drew a
line…” and he mentioned the hadeeth.

And this explanation (tafseer) shows that the verse includes all the
different paths of innovation and does not specify one innovation
over others.

And also amongst the verses [that are related to the censure of
innovation] is the saying of Allaah the Exalted:

And upon Allâh is the responsibility to explain the Straight Path
but there are ways that turn aside. And had He willed, He would have
guided you all (mankind). [An-Nahl 16:9]

The explained path is the Path of Truth and that which is other than
it, turns away from the truth – and these are the paths of
innovations and misguidance – may Allaah protect us, by His
Excellence, from travelling upon them. It is sufficient for whatever
turns away [from the Truth] that it is warned against and the verse
contains a warning and a prohibition [of taking other paths that
turn deviate from the Truth].

And Ibn Waddaah mentioned, saying: “‘Aasim bin Bahdalah was
questioned: `O Abu Bakr, have you considered the saying of Allaah,
the Exalted:

And upon Allâh is the responsibility to explain the Straight Path
but there are ways that turn aside. And had He willed, He would have
guided you all (mankind). [An-Nahl 16:9]

He replied: `Abu Waa’il informed us, from `Abdullaah Ibn Mas’ood
saying: “Abdullaah bin Mas’ood drew a straight line and drew lines
to its right and to its left and then said: `The Messenger
(sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) drew just like this, and he said
about the straight line: `This is the path of Allaah’ and about the
lines to its right and left he said: `These are different ways, upon
each of these ways is a devil calling to it.” Allaah the Exalted
said:

“And verily, this is my Straight Path, so follow it… [Al-An’aam
6:153]

to the end of the verse.

From at-Tustaree, that he said: “Explanation of the path (qasd us-
sabeel) – that is the path of the Sunnah, ` ways that turn aside’
(wa minhaa jaa’ir) – meaning to the Hellfire and they are the sects
and innovations.”

And from Mujaahid, that he said: “”Explanation of the path (qasd us-
sabeel) – meaning the one who is justly balanced between
exaggeration and negligence and this shows that the one who turns
aside is one who commits excesses or is negligent, and both of them
are amongst the descriptions of the innovations.”

And from `Alee (radiallaahu `anhu), that he used to read it: “Wa
minkum jaa’ir…” (And amongst you is one that turns aside). They
said: `He means by that this Ummah.’

So it is as if this verse along with the one before it have come
with the same meaning.

And amongst the verses is the saying of Allaah:

Verily, those who divide their religion and break up into sects (all
kinds of religious sects), you (O Muhammad) have no concern in them
in the least. Their affair is only with Allâh, Who then will tell
them what they used to do. [Al-An’aam 6:159]

The explanation (tafseer) of this verse has come in the hadeeth from
Aa’ishah (radiallaahu anhaa) who said: “The Messenger
(sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) said: `O Aa’ishah! Verily, those who
divide their religion and break up into sects. Who are they?’ So I
said: `Allaah and His Messenger know best.’ He replied: `They are
the People of Desires, the People of Innovations and the People of
Misguidance from this Ummah. O Aaishah! For every sin there is
repentance, except [for] the People of Desires and Innovations,
there is no repentance from them and I am free and innocent of them
and they of me.”

Ibn `Atiyyah said: “This verse includes the People of Desires,
Innovations and Deviation in the minor matters and others besides
them from amongst the people engrossed in argumentation, and
disputation with theological rhetoric (kalaam). All of this is
directed towards the mistakes and the arena of evil beliefs.”

And he means – and Allaah knows best – by `amongst the people
engrossed in argumentation, and disputation in the minor matters’
what Abu `Umar bin `Abdul-Barr in the chapter on `Censure of Ra’I
(Opinion)’ in his book `Kitaab ul-`Ilm’ and we shall mention it [in
due course] with the power of Allaah.

And Ibn Battaal quotes in his `Sharh ul-Bukhaaree’ from Abu Haneefah
that he said: “I met `Ataa ibn Rabaah in Makkah and I asked him
about something and he said: `From which place are you?’ I
said: `Kufah’. He said: `Are you from the town [whose inhabitants]
split their religion and break into sects?’ I said: `Yes’. He
said: `From which group are you?’ I said: `From those who do not
revile and abuse the Salaf (Pious Predecessors), who have faith in
Qadr and who do not declare anyone to be a disbeliever on account a
sin [that he committed].’ So `Ataa said: `You know [the truth] so
hold fast.”

And from al-Hasan who said: “Uthmaan bin `Affaan (radiallaahu `anhu)
came out one day and addressed us with a sermon but the people
interrupted his speech and began to throw pebbles at each other
until — He said: `And we heard a voice from one of the rooms of
the Wives of Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam) and it was said:
This is the voice of the Mother of the Believers.’ He said: `So I
heard it and she was saying: `Verily, your Prophet is free and
innocent from the one who divides his religion and breaks up into a
sect’ and she recited:

Verily, those who divide their religion and break up into sects (all
kinds of religious sects), you (O Muhammad) have no concern in them
in the least [Al-An’aam 6:159]

Al-Qaadee Ismaa’eel said: “I consider that he means by his
saying `Mother of the Believers’ to be Umm Salamah, that has been
mentioned in some of the hadeeth and Aai’shah at that time was
performing Hajj.”

And from Abu Hurairah: “That this verse was revealed in connection
with this Ummah.” And from Abu Umaamah: “They are the Khawaarij.”

Al-Qaadee said: `The apparent meaning (dhaahir) of the Qur’aan
indicates that everyone who introduces an innovation into the
religion such as the Khawaarij and others besides them – that they
come under this verse, because when they innovate, they argue and
dispute [over this innovation], cause divisions and break off into
sects.”

And amongst such verses is the saying of the Exalted:

And be not of Al­Mushrikûn (the disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah,
polytheists, idolaters, etc). Of those who split up their religion
(i.e. the true Islâmic Monotheism), and became sects, [i.e. they
invented new things in the religion (Bid’ah), and followed their
vain desires], each sect rejoicing in that which is with it. [Rum
30:31-32]

It is also read as `faaraqoo’ [instead of `farraqoo’ – thereby
giving it the meaning `depart from and sever oneself from the
religion’]. Abu Hurairah explained it with reference to the
Khawaarij and Abu Umaamah has reported this in marfoo’ form.

It has also been said: `They are the People of Desires and
Innovations’. They said: `Aa’ishah (radiallaahu anhaa) reported it
from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam)’ and that is because
this is the nature of the one who innovates – as Ismaa’eel al-Qaadee
has said and as has preceded in the other verses.

And amongst such verses is the saying of the Exalted:

Say: “He has power to send torment on you from above or from under
your feet, or to cover you with confusion in party strife, and make
you to taste the violence of one another. [Al-An’aam 6:65]

From Ibn `Abbaas that: “Covering you with confusion in party strife,
this is the divergent and varying desires (i.e. innovations).”

And built upon His saying:

…and make you to taste the violence of one another. [Al-An’aam 6:65]

is the pronunciation of takfeer [declaring someone a disbeliever] of
some of you over others so that they fight each other, as occurred
with the Khawaarij when they revolted against the Ahl us-Sunnah wal-
Jamaa’ah. And it has been said that the meaning of:

..or to cover you with confusion in party strife [Al-An’aam 6:65]

is “Covering with differences/disunity”

Mujaahid and Abu al-`Aaliyah said: “This verse is about the Ummah of
Muhammad (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam).” Abu al-`Aaliyah
said: “They are four in number, two of them appeared twenty-five
years after the death of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam),
so they were covered with the confusion of party-strife and some of
them were made to taste the violence of others – and two remained
and they will occur, for sure: Being swallowed from underneath you
(i.e. by the earth) and being transformed/disfigured from above you.”

And this, all of it, is very clear in that the differences and
desires (i.e. innovations) are disliked and not liked and are
blameworthy and not praiseworthy.

And from what has been reported from Mujaahid about the saying of
Allaah:

But they will not cease to disagree – except him on whom your Lord
has bestowed His Mercy (the follower of truth – Islâmic Monotheism)
and for that did He create them. [Hud 11:118-119]

He said about `those who disagree’: “They are the People of
Falsehood” and about `except him on whom your Lord has bestowed His
Mercy’: `The People of Truth, there is no difference amongst them.”

And it has been reported from Mutarrif bin ash-Shakheer that he
said: “If the desires had been but one (i.e. united) then a person
would have said: `Perhaps the truth is in it. But when the desires
split and separate [and become many], every possessor of
intelligence knows that the truth never splits [contradicting
itself].”

From `Ikrimah “‘But they will not cease to disagree’, meaning in the
desires [i.e. their innovations] and `except him on whom your Lord
has bestowed His Mercy’, they are the Ahl us-Sunnah.”

And Abu Bakr bin Thaabit al-Khateeb has quoted from Mansoor bin
Abdur-Rahmaan that he said: “We were sitting with al-Hasan and there
was a man behind me standing and he began to order me to ask him
about the saying of Allaah:

But they will not cease to disagree – except him on whom your Lord
has bestowed His Mercy [Hud 11:118-119]

So he said: “Yes, `they will not cease to disagree’ upon their
different ways `except on whom your Lord has bestowed His Mercy’ so
whomever He bestows His Mercy upon does not disagree.[i.e. he is not
in disagreement as to the truth, he is clear about it.]

And Ibn Wahb reports from `Umar bin `Abdul `Azeez and Maalik bin
Anas: “The People of Mercy do not differ.” And this verse has a
beautiful explanation which will come later – if Allaah wills.”

[End of Article]

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So know, O reader, that all of the innovated sects fall under this, for they are those who have introduced many innovations into this Ummah and have thus split this Ummah. From them are the extreme Khwaarij such as al-Qa’idah and their likes, the Sufis, the Tableeghi Jamaat in South Asia and other than there, the Qutubees, the Raafidah Sh’eeah, the Ikhwaanal Muslimoon,  and any other sect which has gone away from the correct understanding of this religion as the pious predecessors understood this religion.

And all success is with Allah.

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